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WRITTEN BY: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica
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sumber posting biolistrik
Bioelectricity, electric potentials and currents produced by or occurring within living organisms. Bioelectric potentials are generated by a variety of biological processes and generally range in strength from one to a few hundred millivolts. In the electric eel, however, currents of one ampere at 600 to 1,000 volts are generated. A brief treatment of bioelectricity follows. For full treatment, see electricity: Bioelectric effects.

Bioelectric effects were known in ancient times from the activity of such electric fishes as the Nile catfish and the electric eel. The experiments of Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta in the 18th century on the connection between electricity and muscle contraction in frogs and other animals were of importance in the development of the sciences of physics and physiology. In modern times the measurement of bioelectric potentials has become a routine practice in clinical medicine. Electrical effects originating in active cells of the heart and the brain, for example, are commonly monitored and analyzed for diagnostic purposes.

Bioelectric potentials are identical with the potentials produced by devices such as batteries or generators. In nearly all cases, however, a bioelectric current consists of a flow of ions (i.e., electrically charged atoms or molecules), whereas the electric current used for lighting, communication, or power is a movement of electrons. If two solutions with different concentrations of an ion are separated by a membrane that blocks the flow of the ions between them, the concentration imbalance gives rise to an electric-potential difference between the solutions. In most solutions, ions of a given electric charge are accompanied by ions of opposite charge, so that the solution itself has no net charge. If two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a membrane that allows one kind of ion to pass but not the other, the concentrations of the ion that can pass will tend to equalize by diffusion, producing equal and opposite net charges in the two solutions. In living cells the two solutions are those found inside and outside the cell. The cell membrane separating inside from outside is semipermeable, allowing certain ions to pass through while blocking others. In particular, nerve- and muscle-cell membranes are slightly permeable to positive potassium ions, which diffuse outward, leaving a net negative charge in the cell.
The bioelectric potential across a cell membrane is typically about 50 millivolts; this potential is known as the resting potential. All cells use their bioelectric potentials to assist or control metabolic processes, but some cells make specialized use of bioelectric potentials and currents for distinctive physiological functions. Examples of such uses are found in nerve and muscle cells. Information is carried by electric pulses (called action potentials) passing along nerve fibres. Similar pulses in muscle cells accompany muscular contraction. In nerve and muscle cells, chemical or electrochemical stimulation results in temporary changes in the permeability of cell membranes, allowing the electric potential between inside and outside to discharge as a current that is propagated along nerve fibres or that activates the contractile mechanism of muscle fibres. The transport of sodium ions is involved in the production of action potentials. Among other cells in which specialized functions are dependent on the maintenance of bioelectric potentials are the receptor cells sensitive to light, sound, and touch and many of the cells that secrete hormones or other substances.

electricity: Bioelectric effects
Various fishes, both marine and freshwater, have developed special organs that are capable of generating substantial electric discharges, while others have tissues that can sense feeble electric fields in water. In more than 200 fish species, the bioelectric organ is involved in self-defense or hunting. The torpedo, or electric ray, and the electric eel have especially powerful electric organs, which they apparently use to immobilize or kill prey. The electric eel has three pairs of electric organs; they constitute most of the mass of the body and about four-fifths of the total length of the fish. This fish is reputed to be able to generate a sufficiently powerful electric shock to stun a man. Electric rays have two large, disk-shaped electric organs, one on each side of the body, that contribute to the disklike shape of the body.




Transcript of Which fruit generates the most electricity?
Which fruit can generate the most electricity?
The First Steps
Digital Multimeter
Zinc Nail
Shiny Penny
Alligator clip wires
1. Insert the zinc nail into the fruit
2. Insert the copper penny into the fruit.
*Keep the copper penny and zinc nail away from each other*
3. Set the multimeter to a voltage reading setting
4. Touch the black alligator clip wire to the zinc nail and the red alligator clip to the copper penny.
5. Check the multimeter to determine the fruit’s electrical charge.
6. Record your findings.
7.Repeat these steps with the other fruits.
The lemon will generate the most electricity, because it is the most acidic.

During the experiment, Tiffany and I found it difficult to insert the penny into the fruit, especially the lime, lemon, and grapefruit, all which had thick skins. The zinc nail was easy to stick in since it had a pointy end. The multimeter also kept changing. For example, it would say 0.47, then change to 0.48, then 0.49, and then start the pattern over again. Eventually, it stopped on a number and that was what we recorded.
Data Analysis
After performing the experiment, we found that
The lemon generates .8 volts
The grapefruit generates .51 volts
The lime generates .50 volts
The apples generates .45 volts
We found that the acidic fruits generated more electricity than the apple, a non-acidic fruit. All the data tells us acidic fruits generate more electricity.
Our Experiment
What would we change?
We would use more fruits to have more accurate information.
We would use a shinier penny to see if it had a different affect.
We got our information from:
Lipper, Aurora.“Fruit Batteries Science Fair Project”. 2009. Viewed 6/15/13.
< http://mrwiles.weebly.com/uploads/2/8/9/9/2899699/fruitbattery_guidebook.pdf.
Farmer, Sean
“How to Use a Multimeter to Test the Electric Charge in Fruits & Vegetables”. Viewed 6/15/13.
< http://www.ehow.com/how_8228570_use-electric-charge-fruits-vegetables.html.
Bochinski, Julianne Blair. The complete handbook of science fair projects. New York: Wiley, 1991. Print.

Our hypothesis was acceptable. The lemon did generate the most electricity. The more acidic a fruit is, the more electricity it can generate. The lemon is the most acidic of all the fruits used. One of the new questions that my group member and I came up with was, why don’t people use fruits to generate electricity instead of other fossil fuels?
Tiffany Mohabir
Afsana Hossain

Percobaan LISTRIK dari buah-buahan

Batteries are comprised of two different metals suspended in an acidic solution. With the Fruit-Power Battery, the two metals are zinc and copper. The zinc is in the galvanization on the nails, and the pennies are actually copper-plated zinc. The acid comes from the citric acid inside each lemon.

The two metal components are electrodes, the parts of a battery where electrical current enters and leaves the battery. With a zinc and copper setup, the electron flow is out of the penny (copper) and into the nail (zinc) through the acidic juice inside the lemon. In the exchange of electrons between the zinc and the copper over the acid bridge, copper accepts two electrons from zinc which accounts for the current.

Once the Fruit-Power Battery is connected to the LED, you’ve completed a circuit. As the electrical current passes through the LED, it powers the LED and then passes back through all of the lemons before getting to the LED again. By the way, an LED is polar sensitive. That means an LED will glow only if the current is flowing through it in the right direction. If you hook up the LED and it doesn’t glow, switch the alligator clips attached to its legs. That should do it.


Langsa detik – Naufal Raziq (15), bocah penemu listrik dari pohon kedondong pagar mengaku sosok motivator terbesar dalam temuannya adalah orang tua. Sebelum mendapatkan kerja sama dengan Pertamina dan lainnya, orang tuanya terus mendukung inovasi yang sedang dikembangkannya itu.

Orang tua Naufal bahkan rela menjual hartanya demi memenuhi sejumlah perlengkapan untuk menghidupkan listrik dari pohon kedondong pagar. “Orang tua itu motivator utama saya. Beliau sangat support, dan terus yakinin saya bahwa temuan itu sangat baik dan bermanfaat. Beliau juga rela perhiasannya itu dijual,” kata Naufal ditemui detikcom di rumahnya di Desa Kampung Baru, Langsa, Aceh, Selasa (6/6/2017).

Meskipun pertama kalinya dalam mengembangkan terobosan tersebut bersusah payah hingga orang tuanya harus menjual emas, kini keluarga bangga melihat prestasi Naufal apalagi mendapatkan tawaran yang sangat luar biasa dari berbagai instansi.

“Kami bangga lihat prestasi Naufal. Dia sudah bisa harumkan nama keluarga dan daerahnya. Kami terus selalu mendukung pokoknya,” kata Muslim, pamannya Naufal.

Muslim menambahkan, capaian Naufal sekarang luar biasa. Apalagi mulai dari pemerintah daerah hingga setingkat Menteri ESDM dan Panglima TNI pun sudah dijumpainya.

Naufal mengatakan akan terus mengembangkan temuannya itu. Dia ingin temuannya menjadi lebih baik lagi ke depannya dengan inovasi-inovasi baru.

Selain itu, Naufal juga bercita-cita ingin menjadi seorang ilmuan. “Cita-cita saya ingin jadi ilmuan. Ya, ilmuan di bidang Elektro,” kata Naufal.

Naufal Raziq bocah penemu listri dari pohon kedondong.Naufal Raziq bocah penemu listri dari pohon kedondong. Foto: Datuk Haris Maulana/detikcom


Temuan- temuannya kini tengah di teliti dan dikembangkan oleh pihak terkait. Dengan prestasinya yang gemilang, Naufal juga berkesempatan mengenyam pendidikan di Pulau Jawa yakni di MAN 3 Malang.

Pendidikan yang diterimanya merupakan bentuk dedikasi Kementerian Agama (Kemenag) terhadap Naufal dengan inovasinya.

“Saya bersyukur. Semoga apa yang saya buat dapat berguna bagi rakyat Indonesia. Minimal, temuan saya bisa dipakai oleh masyarakat,” tambah Naufal.


PTPN X Jajaki Pemanfaatan Ampas Tebu untuk Bioetanol
Jum’at, 11 Oktober 2013 12:44 wib
Rizkie Fauzian – Okezone

JAKARTA – PT Perkebunan Nusantara X (Persero) mengembangkan energi terbarukan berupa bioetanol berbasis ampas tebu. Pengembangan bioetanol dengan ampas tebu juga lebih murah dibanding menggunakan tetes tebu (molasses).

“Ini potensinya sangat tinggi, untuk satu liter bioetanol, butuh lima kilogram ampas. Lima kilogram ampas itu kira-kira harganya Rp 1.000,” ujar Direktur Utama PTPN X Subiyono dalam keterangan tertulis, Jumat (11/10/2013).

Menurutnya, jika menggunakan tetes tebu, butuh empat kilogram tetes untuk menghasilkan satu liter bioetanol. Empat kilogram tetes tebu itu jika dirupiahkan harganya sekitar Rp4.000.

”Jadi pengembangan bioetanol menggunakan ampas menjanjikan profit margin yang lebih tebal ketimbang menggunakan tetes tebu,” ujarnya.

PTPN X sendiri kini sudah memiliki pabrik bioetanol berbasis tetes tebu yang terletak dalam kompleks Pabrik Gula Gempolkrep di Mojokerto, Jawa Timur. Saat ini, pengembangan bioetanol dari ampas tebu tengah dikaji oleh tim khusus, termasuk mengkaji pendirian pabriknya.

”Ini bagian dari diversifikasi usaha untuk mengoptimalkan kinerja,” ujar Subiyono.

Subiyono menuturkan, Indonesia mempunyai potensi besar dalam hal produksi energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan berupa bioetanol dari limbah pertanian atau biomass, termasuk limbah padat industri gula, yaitu ampas tebu. ”Ini harus kita optimalkan,” ujarnya.

Subiyono menambahkan, optimalisasi penggunaan ampas tebu akan dijadikan salah satu indikator kinerja (key performance indicator/KPI) pabrik gula di lingkungan PTPN X. ”Jika PG tidak bisa menghasilkan ampas tebu, patut dipertanyakan kinerjanya. Itu akan jadi bahan evaluasi,” kata dia.

Lebih lanjut, dirinya menjelaskan, apabila per tahun ada sekitar 6 juta ton tebu yang digiling di sebelas pabrik gula, maka setidaknya tersedia 1,8 juta ton ampas tebu. Dengan asumsi digunakan sendiri untuk operasional sekitar 1,3-1,5 juta ton, maka ada 300.000-500.000 ton ampas yang dapat dikonversi menjadi bioetanol

Untuk diketahui, satu unit pabrik bioetanol generasi ketiga ini membutuhkan ampas minimal 500 ton per hari. (kie) (wdi)


Sugarcane ethanol is an alcohol-based fuel produced by the fermentation of sugarcane juice and molasses. Because it is a clean, affordable and low-carbon biofuel, sugarcane ethanol has emerged as a leading renewable fuel for the transportation sector. Ethanol can be used two ways:

Blended with gasoline at levels ranging from 5 to 25 percent to reduce petroleum use, boost octane ratings and cut tailpipe emissions
Pure ethanol – a fuel made up of 85 to 100 percent ethanol depending on country specifications – can be used in specially designed engines
Benefits of Ethanol
Cleaner Air. Ethanol adds oxygen to gasoline which helps reduce air pollution and harmful emissions in tailpipe exhaust.
Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Compared to gasoline, sugarcane ethanol cuts carbon dioxide emissions by 90 percent on average. That’s better than any other liquid biofuel produced today at commercial scale.
Better Performance. Ethanol is a high-octane fuel that helps prevent engine knocking and generates more power in higher compression engines.
Lower Petroleum Usage. Ethanol reduces global dependence on oil. Sugarcane ethanol is one more good option for diversifying energy supplies.
Brazil: A Leader in Ethanol Production and Use
Brazil has achieved greater energy security thanks to its focused commitment to developing a competitive sugarcane industry and making ethanol a key part of its energy mix. In fact, Brazil has replaced almost 40 percent of its gasoline needs with sugarcane ethanol – making gasoline the alternative fuel in the country. Many observers point to Brazil’s experience as a case study for other nations seeking to expand use of renewable fuels and have identified two key factors for success:

Sugarcane Ethanol. Brazil is the world’s largest sugarcane ethanol producer and a pioneer in using ethanol as a motor fuel. In 2012/13, Brazilian ethanol production reached 23.2 billion liters (6.1 billion gallons). Most of this production is absorbed by the domestic market where it is sold as either pure ethanol fuel or blended with gasoline. All gasoline sold in Brazil includes a blend of 18 to 25 percent ethanol.

Flex Fuel Vehicles. The country first began using ethanol in vehicles as early as the 1920s, and the trend gained urgency during the oil shock of the 1970s. However, sugarcane ethanol’s popularity really took off in 2003 with the introduction of flex fuel vehicles that run on either gasoline or pure ethanol. More than 90 percent of new cars sold today in Brazil are flex fuel due to consumer demand, and these vehicles now make up about half of the country’s entire light vehicle fleet – a remarkable accomplishment in less than a decade. As a result, Brazilian consumers have a choice at the pump when they fuel their cars and most are choosing sugarcane ethanol for its price and environmental benefits, making gasoline the alternative fuel in the country.
Since 2003, the combination of sugarcane ethanol and flex fuel vehicles has reduced Brazil’s emissions of carbon dioxide by 189 million tons. That’s as good for the environment as planting and maintaining 1,355 million trees for 20 years!

What’s Next? Cellulosic Ethanol
Sugarcane ethanol today is made from the sucrose found in sugarcane juice and molasses. This current process taps only one-third of the energy sugarcane can offer. The other two-thirds remains locked in leftover cane fiber (called bagasse) and straw. While some of this energy is converted to bioelectricity in Brazil, scientists have discovered new techniques to produce ethanol – known as cellulosic ethanol – from leftover plant material.

This complex process involves hydrolysis and gasification technologies to break down lignocellulose – the structural material found in plant matter – into sugar. While cellulosic ethanol can be manufactured from abundant and diverse raw materials, its production requires a greater amount of processing than traditional sugarcane ethanol and is therefore currently more expensive.

Once engineers and technical experts perfect commercial-scale manufacturing, production prices will come down, and cellulosic ethanol might double the volume of fuel coming from the same amount of land planted with sugarcane.


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